“Manners,” from Notes on the State of Virginia, Query XVIII (1783)

The particular customs and manners that may happen to be received in that

It is difficult to determine on the standard by which the manners of a nation may be tried,
whether catholic or particular. It is more difficult for a native to bring to that standard the
manners of his own nation, familiarized to him by habit. There must doubtless be an unhappy
influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us. The
whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous
passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the
other. Our children see this, and learn to imitate it; for man is an imitative animal. This quality is
the germ of all education in him. From his cradle to his grave he is learning to do what he sees
others do. If a parent could find no motive either in his philanthropy or his self-love, for
restraining the intemperance of passion towards his slave, it [299] should always be a sufficient
one that his child is present. But generally it is not sufficient. The parent storms, the child looks
on, catches the lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in the circle of smaller slaves, gives a
loose to the worst of passions, and thus nursed, educated, and daily exercised in tyranny, cannot
but be stamped by it with odious peculiarities. The man must be a prodigy who can retain his
manners and morals undepraved by such circumstances. And with what execrations should the
statesman be loaded, who permitting one half the citizens thus to trample on the rights of the
other, transforms those into despots, and these into enemies, destroys the morals of the one part,
and the amor patriæ of the other. For if a slave can have a country in this world, it must be any
other in preference to that in which he is born to live and labour for another: in which he must
lock up the faculties of his nature, contribute as far as depends on his individual endeavours to
the evanishment of the human race, or entail his own miserable condition on the endless
generations proceeding from him. With the morals of the people, their industry also is [300]
destroyed. For in a warm climate, no man will labour for himself who can make another labour
for him. This is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves a very small proportion indeed are ever
seen to labour. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their
only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the gift of God?
That they are not to be violated but with his wrath? Indeed I tremble for my country when I
reflect that God is just: that his justice cannot sleep forever: that considering numbers, nature and
natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situation, is among
possible events: that it may become probable by supernatural interference! The Almighty has no
attribute which can take side with us in such a contest.—But it is impossible to be temperate and
to pursue this subject through the various considerations of policy, of morals, of history natural
and civil. We must be contented to hope they will force their way into every one’s mind. I think
a change already perceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of the master is
[301] abating, that of the slave rising from the dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope
preparing, under the auspices of heaven, for a total emancipation, and that this is disposed, in the
order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation.

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